Ultrafiltration is a pressure-driven purification process in which water and low molecular weight substances permeate a membrane while particles, colloids, and macromolecules are retained. The primary removal mechanism is size exclusion, although the electrical charge and surface chemistry of the particles or membrane may affect the purification efficiency. Ultrafiltration pore ratings range from approximately 1K to 500K D, making ultrafiltration more permeable than nanofiltration. The tangential flow of ultrafiltration such as hollow-fiber allows for the effective removal of colloids, proteins, bacteria, pyrogens, and other organic molecules larger than the membrane pore size.

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